ENR 1   General rules and procedures

ENR 1.1  General rules


The air traffic and procedures applicable to air traffic in territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina conform to Annexes 2 and 11 to the convention on International Civil Aviation to those portions of the Procedures for Air Navigation Services – Air Traffic Management applicable to aircraft and of the Regional Supplementary Procedures applicable to the EUR Region.


The pilot-in command shall, irrespective of whether he is operating the aircraft himself or not, be responsible for the operation of the aircraft in accordance with the rules of the air except in the state of emergency. The pilot-in-command of an aircraft shall have final authority as to the disposition of the aircraft while in command.
When preparing the flight, the pilot-in-command shall familiarize himself with all information important for the safe conduct of the flight. For a flight exceeding the vicinity of the aerodrome of departure and prior to an IFR flight, pilot shall obtain sufficient information on the available aeronautical weather reports and forecasts, taking into consideration fuel requirements and an alternative course of action if the flight cannot be completed as planned.
No person whose function is critical to the safety of aviation shall undertake that function while under the influence of any psychoactive substance, by reason of which human performance is impaired. A person shall not pilot an aircraft or act as a crew member while unfit to attend to the duties of a pilot or of a crew member as a result of the consumption of alcoholic beverages or other intoxicating agents.


An aircraft shall be operated to guarantee that the safety and order of air traffic are guaranteed and no other person or properties are endangered.
Aircraft shall not be flown below the minimum safe height except when necessary for take-off and landing. A minimum safe height is the height at which unnecessary noise disturbance or necessary hazards to persons and property are unlikely to occur in the event of an emergency landing. Over cities, other densely populated areas, industrial plants, assemblies of persons, accident sites and disaster areas, this height shall be at least 300 M (1000 FT) above the highest obstacle within a radius of 600 M, and elsewhere at least 150 M (500 FT) above ground or water. Aircraft shall not be flown below bridges and similar constructions nor below overhead lines and antennas.
Except by permission from the appropriate authority, nothing shall be dropped or sprayed from an aircraft in flight. This does not apply to ballast in the form of harmless liquid or fine send, fuel tow ropes and similar objects if dropped or discharged at places where no danger to persons or property exists.
3.3   TOWING
No aircraft or other objects shall be towed by an aircraft, except in accordance with requirements prescribed by the BHDCA. Advertising flights with towed objects require a permission from the CAA and clearance from the air traffic services unit if such flight will be conducted in controlled airspace.
Group flight of two or more airplanes may be conducted on the terms and conditions not affecting flight safety. Take-off and landing of airplanes comprising the group shall be performed individually, in an order specified by the flight manager. The flight manager shall also be responsible for determining separation between airplanes flying within the group. If the flight is conducted within the aerodrome traffic circuit, the group is formed in the air after the second turn, at altitudes higher than 150 M above ground. When conducting a group flight of airplanes, radio communication with the responsible ATC service, or with the flight manager, shall be maintained by the flight leader.
There are no unmanned free balloons operations in airspace over the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina.


In order to avoid collisions, the pilot shall maintain sufficient distance from the aircraft as well as vehicles and other obstructions. Nothing shall relieve the pilot-in-command from the responsibility of taking any action to avoid collision.
An aircraft shall not be operated in such proximity to other aircraft as to create a collision hazard.
The aircraft that has the right-of-way shall maintain its heading and speed.
When two aircraft are approaching head-on or approximately so and there is danger of collision, each shall alter its heading to the right.
When two aircraft are converging at approximately the same level, the aircraft that has the other on its right shall give way, except as follows:
  1. power-driven heavier-than-air aircraft shall give way to airships, gliders and balloons;
  2. airships shall give way to gliders and balloons;
  3. gliders shall give way to balloons;
  4. power-driven aircraft shall give way to aircraft which are seen to be towing other aircraft or objects.
An overtaking aircraft is an aircraft that approaches another from the rear on a line forming an angle of less than 70 degrees with the plane of symmetry of the latter. At night, this relation of the flight directions shall be assumed when the overtaking aircraft unable to see either of the aircraft’s left (port) or right (starboard) navigation lights. In the moment of overtaking distance between aircrafts shall be at least 500 M. An aircraft that is being overtaken has the right-of-way. Overtaking an aircraft in final approach stage is not permitted.
An aircraft in flight, or operating on the ground shall give way to aircraft landing or in the final stages of an approach to land. When two or more heavier-than-air aircraft are approaching an aerodrome for the purpose of landing, aircraft at the higher level shall give way to aircraft at the lower level. Power-driven heavier-than-air aircraft shall give way to gliders.
An aircraft that is aware that another is compelled to land shall give way to that aircraft.
An aircraft taxiing on the maneuvering area of an aerodrome, shall give way to aircraft taking off or about to take off.
In the case of danger of collision between two aircraft taxiing on the maneuvering surfaces of an aerodrome the following shall apply:
  1. when two aircraft are approaching head on, or approximately so, each shall stop or where practicable alter its course to the right so as to keep well clear;
  2. when two aircraft are on converging course, the one which has the other on its right shall give way;
  3. an aircraft which is being overtaken by another aircraft shall have the right-of-way and the overtaking aircraft shall keep well clear of the other aircraft.
An aircraft taxiing on the maneuvering area shall stop and hold at all runway-holding positions unless otherwise authorized by the aerodrome control tower.
Anti-collision lights shall be displayed before the engine start-up and switched off together with aircraft engine.
Navigation lights shall be displayed:
  1. for IFR flights navigation lights shall be displayed night and day;
  2. for VFR flights during night flights and during a day when low visibility conditions occur.
All aircraft moving on the movement area of an aerodrome shall display both navigation and anticollision lights intended to attract attention to the aircraft.
An aircraft shall be flown under simulated instrument flight conditions only if:
  1. dual controls of the aircraft are available;
  2. a qualified pilot participates in the flight at the dual controls. The safety pilot shall have adequate vision forward and to each side of the aircraft.


Upon observing or receiving any of the signals given in Appendix 1,Annex 2;aircraft shall take such action as may be required by the interpretation of the signal given in that Appendix. The signals of Appendix 1 shall, when used, have the meaning indicated therein. They shall be used only for the purpose indicated and no other signals likely to be confused with them shall be used. If radio contact exists, instructions by the competent units given by radio have priority over light and ground signals. A signalman shall be responsible for providing standard marshalling signals to aircraft in a clear and precise manner using the signals shown in Appendix 1. No person shall guide an aircraft unless trained, qualified and approved by the CAA to carry out the functions of a signalman. The signalman shall wear a distinctive fluorescent identification vest to allow the flight crew to identify that he is the person responsible for the marshalling operation. Daylight-fluorescent wands, table-tennis bats or gloves shall be used for all signalling by all participating ground staff during daylight hours. Illuminated wands shall be used at night or in low visibility.


The pilot shall obtain ATC clearance for controlled flight or a portion of a flight, for which a flight plan shall be filed. With ATC clearance, the pilot receives permission to conduct his flight under specific conditions. While guiding the movements of the flight subject to its control, ATC unit may establish in detail the progress of the flight, especially the flight path and level, when issuing the corresponding clearances. Whenever a pilot requests air traffic control clearance involving priority because of urgent reasons, he shall specify these reasons in his application. The pilot is not permitted to deviate from the ATC clearance last issued and confirmed, unless a new ATC clearance has been issued. This does not apply to emergency situations which require immediate decision by the pilot. In these cases the pilot shall notify the competent ATC unit without delay and obtain a new ATC clearance. An aircraft operating on a controlled aerodrome shall not taxi on the maneuvering area without ATC clearance from the competent ATC unit and shall comply with any instructions given by that unit.
During controlled flight pilot shall report to the appropriate ATC unit position of the aircraft, meteorological conditions and phenomena such as thunderstorms, wake turbulence, wind-shear, icing and other phenomena related to the safety of the flight. As long as no different regulations of the air traffic control unit or notices are given, the pilot has to report overflying a prescribed reporting point as soon as possible time of overflight and flight altitude on controlled flights, together with other required informations by radio telephony to the relevant air traffic control unit.
A controlled flight shall, except when landing at a controlled aerodrome, advise the appropriate ATC unit as soon as it ceases to be subject to air traffic control service.
The pilot operating controlled flight shall maintain constant listening watch on the radio frequency of the competent ATC unit and establish two-way communication with that unit.
When a communications failure occurs the pilot shall follow procedures complying with the voice communication failure procedures of Annex 10, Volume II. The aircraft shall attempt to establish the communications with the appropriate air traffic control unit using all other available means. When forming part of the aerodrome traffic at a controlled aerodrome, pilot shall keep watch for such instructions as may be issued by visual signals.
When there is communications failure during VMC the pilot of controlled flight shall continue to fly in VMC land at the nearest suitable aerodrome and report its arrival by the most expeditious means to the appropriate ATS unit.
If in IMC or when the pilot of an IFR flight considers it inadvisable to complete the flight in accordance with VMC, the aircraft shall:
  1. in airspace where radar is not used in the provision of air traffic control, maintain the last assigned speed and level, or minimum flight altitude if higher, for a period of 20 minutes following the aircraft’s failure to report its position over a compulsory reporting point and thereafter adjust level and speed in accordance with the filed flight plan;
  2. in airspace where radar is used in the provision of ATC, maintain the last assigned speed and level, or minimum flight altitude if higher, for a period of 7 minutes following:
    1. the time the last assigned level or minimum flight altitude is reached; or
    2. the time the transponder is set to Code 7600; or
    3. the aircraft’s failure to report its position over a compulsory reporting point;
    whichever is later, and thereafter adjust level and speed in accordance with the filed flight plan;
  3. when being radar vectored or having been directed by ATC to proceed offset using area navigation (RNAV) without a specified limit, rejoin the current flight plan route no later than the next significant point, taking into consideration the applicable minimum flight altitude;
  4. proceed according to the current flight plan route to the appropriate designated navigation aid or fix serving the destination aerodrome and, when required to ensure compliance with e) below, hold over this aid or fix until commencement of descent;
  5. commence descent from the navigation aid or fix specified in d) at, or as close as possible to, the expected approach time last received and acknowledged; or, if no expected approach time has been received and acknowledged, at, or as close as possible to, the estimated time of arrival resulting from the current flight plan;
  6. complete a normal instrument approach procedure as specified for the designated navigation aid or fix; and;
  7. land, if possible, within 30 minutes after the estimated time of arrival specified in e) or the last acknowledged expected approach time, whichever is later.